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Other Terms: Mesentery of sigmoid colon, Mesocolon sigmoideum, Mésocôlon sigmoïde
The sigmoid mesocolon is the continuation of the descending mesocolon. It is the reflection of peritoneum which connects the sigmoid flexure with the posterior wall of the extreme lower portion of the abdominal cavity and with the posterior wall of the pelvic cavity. It extends from the termination of the descending colon in the iliac fossa, at the lateral border of the psoas major muscle, to the commencement of the rectum, opposite the middle portion of the sacrum. In following the line of attachment of the sigmoid mesocolon, it crosses the psoas major muscle and the iliac vessels near their bifurcation. After passing slightly to the right, to descend obliquely, it reaches almost to the floor of the pelvis. The whole of the sigmoid mesocolon is to the left of the median line. The width of the sigmoid mesocolon permits the greater portion of the sigmoid flexure, when distended, to occupy the pelvic cavity, and often to extend into the hypogastric region. The sigmoid arteries and the superior rectal artery, with their accompanying veins, the lymphatic vessels and the nerves supplying the sigmoid flexure are between the layers of the sigmoid mesocolon.