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Caudal branchial arch muscles
Other Terms: Posterior branchial arch muscles
The arches caudal to the sixth branchial arch are not well developed in human embryos. The embryonic region caudal to the sixth arch becomes an important transition zone between head and trunk anatomy and is also near the emergence point of the superior limb bud. The somitomeric tissue that contributes to the muscles of these caudal arches migrates to form two important muscles, the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which link the head and pectoral girdle of the upper limb. Both of the muscles are innervated by the accessory nerve.