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Anterior scalene

Other Terms: Scalenus anterior, Anterior scalene, Musculus scalenus anterior, Muscle scalène antérieur

Muscle parts

None

Latin name

Musculus scalenus anterior

Latin muscle parts

None

Group

Cervical wall – lateral musculature – internal layer

Etymology

The English name for this muscle is the muscle with three unequal sides that is before the others. Scalenus is Latin for “having three unequal sides,” which comes from the Greek skallein meaning “to hoe, or stir up.” The name of the scalene muscles can be traced back to the 17th century French anatomist Jean Riolan. He thought that the three scalenes were one muscle and he envisioned their combined shape as that of an irregular three-sided, or scalene, triangle. The Latin term anterior is derived from the Latin ante meaning “before.”

Origin

Anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of C3, C4, C5, and C6

Insertion

Scalene tubercle of the first rib

Action

Flexes, laterally flexes, and rotates the cervical vertebrae; elevates the first rib.

Nerve supply

Branches from the cervical ventral rami (C4, C5, and C6)

Blood supply

The ascending cervical and various muscular branches from the inferior thyroid, which is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery, supply the muscle. It also receives blood from the suprascapular artery, superficial cervical artery, and dorsal scapular artery.

Latin

Musculus scalenus anterior

French

Muscle scalène antérieur

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