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The muscles of the thigh are the largest group of muscles in the body. These large muscles play pivotal roles in generating movements of the lower limb that are essential to walking, running, and jumping, as well as other movements associated with locomotion. During embryonic development the lower limb rotates so that the original ventral embryonic muscles assume a posterior position in the post-natal lower limb, while the embryonic dorsal muscles assume an anterior position in the limb. The muscles of the anterior compartment become the extensor muscles of the knee joint and share attachments, actions, blood supply, and innervation in common. The posterior muscles split into two compartments – the posterior compartment, often referred to as the hamstring muscles and the medial compartment, or adductors of the thigh. Within each of these compartments, the muscles share many features in common.