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Trigeminal nerve [V]

Other Terms: Fifth cranial nerve, Trigeminal nerve tree, Trigeminal nerve [V], Nervus trigeminus, Nerve V, Nervus trigeminus [V]


The fifth cranial or trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It is the major sensory nerve of the head. It arises from the sides of the pons by two roots: a larger, posterior or sensory root and a smaller, anterior or motor root. These roots can be traced to the floor of the fourth ventricle, to the gray matter in the lower part of the medulla oblongata, and in the upper part of the spinal cord. It is the only cranial nerve which resembles a spinal nerve in that it arises by two roots: a posterior sensory and an anterior motor root. The ganglion is located on the posterior root. The trigeminal contains three main branches: the ophthalmic nerve, the maxillary nerve, and the mandibular nerve. The trigeminal is a mixed nerve. It distributes sensory filaments to the dura mater, pia mater, orbit, eyelids, nose, gums, teeth, tonsils, palate, sphenoid cells, ethmoid cells, frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, nasal fossa; pharynx articulation of the lower jaw, ear, parotid gland, scalp, forehead, and face; gustatory filaments to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue; and motor filaments to four of the muscles of mastication- temporal, masseter, and internal and external pterygoids.


Nervus trigeminus


Nerve V


Nervus trigeminus [V]


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