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Common iliac artery
Other Terms: Common iliac arterial tree, Arteria iliaca communis, Artère iliaque commune
The common iliac arteries begin at the bifurcation of the aorta on the front of the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra, a little to the left of the median line. They terminate opposite the upper margin of the sacroiliac synchondrosis by dividing into the external iliac and internal iliac arteries. The upper third of a line drawn from a point one centimeter below and to the left of the umbilicus to a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis corresponds to the common iliac. The lower two-thirds of the line mark the line of the external iliac. Each common iliac artery gives off a few small branches to the peritoneum and extraperitoneal connective tissue; also a few to the ureter but the only branches or any consequence are its terminal divisions: the external iliac and internal iliac arteries. The right common iliac artery is the longer, owing to the bifurcation of the aorta to the left of the median line. It measures about five centimeters in length. Anteriorly, it is covered with peritoneum. It is crossed by the ovarian artery in the female, the termination of the ileum, sympathetic nerves to the hypogastric plexus, and, just before its bifurcation, by the ureter. On the left side the superior rectal and sigmoid vessels also lie on the vessel. Posteriorly it is in relation with the right common iliac vein, the end of the left common iliac vein, and the beginning of the inferior vena cava. On the right side, lie the beginning of the inferior vena cava, the termination of the right common iliac vein, and the psoas muscle. On the left side is the termination of the left common iliac vein, the right common iliac vein, and the hypogastrie plexus. The left common iliac artery is four centimeters long. AnteriorIy the ureter and, in the female, the ovarian artery cross it near its bifurcation. It is also in relation in front with the sympathetic nerves descending to the hypogastric plexus, the iliac and pelvic colon, and the pelvic mesocolon. Behind it are the bodies of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae, and the intervening cartilaginous disc, the left common iliac vein, and the psoas major muscle. To the left is the psoas muscle. To the right is the left common iliac vein, the hypogastric plexus, and the sacral artery. The iliolumbar artery, Lumbosacral plexus, and the obturator nerve is posterior.
Arteria iliaca communis
Artère iliaque commune