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Cuboid

Other Terms: Cuboid, Os cuboideum, Os cuboïde

Type

short

Description

This is the lateral most and largest element in the distal row of the tarsal bones. As its name implies, the bone is cube-like, consisting of multiple flattened surfaces. Some of these surfaces are smooth, cartilage-covered, synovial joint faces and others are rough areas serving as sites for muscle and ligament attachment.

Etymology

This name comes from the Greek word kubos meaning cube, combined with the common ending -eidos that translates as form or shape, thus, a cube shaped bone. It was first described by Galen in the 2nd century A.D.

Articulations

The cuboid bone articulates with four bones: the calcaneus, lateral cuneiform, fourth metatarsal, and fifth metatarsal. Sometimes it articulates with a fifth bone, the navicular. It forms a large rectangular proximal surface that articulates with the calcaneus. Its distal surface, which is convex from medial to lateral, forms a smaller, medial, rectangular facet for articulation with the base of the fourth metatarsal bone. In addition, it forms a larger, lateral facet that articulates with the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. On its medial surface is a larger oval facet for articulation with the lateral cuneiform. Occasionally, just behind this larger facet is a small oval articular facet for the navicular bone.

Ossification

Ossification occurs from a single center beginning in the ninth month of fetal life, but sometimes might not emerge until as late as six months postnatally. It is usually completely ossified by puberty.

Latin

Os cuboideum

French

Os cuboïde

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